The early defoliation caused by apple is not limited to the harm caused by expert characterization of brown spots, gray spots, spots, scab, etc., but also due to the bad environment, improper technical operation and other reasons cause the leaves to fall off earlier. The cause of the early defoliation caused by apple is now classified into a document, and effective prevention and control measures are proposed for the reference of the fruit grower.
1. Insect caused by fallen leaves
The insect pests that damage the leaves mainly include gold-grained moths, leaf miners, boat-shaped caterpillars, chafers, plow-grass webs, and red-and-white spiders. The leafhoppers mainly sucked leaf sap on both sides of the leaf veins by sucking and sucking mouthparts. When the damaged leaves were severe, the leaves were whitish green, turning reddish-white, and obvious white flocculent nets were seen on the back, and the leaves eventually fell off. At this time, we must seize four key periods, namely, the outbreak period, spawning period, hatching period of eggs, and occurrence of high-temperature, high-humidity period to prevent and control. Pharmacy selection can be used in the early 20% Altair 3000 times, 10% of the sudden death of the net 6000 times, etc., to kill the newly emerged pupa female pupa and pupa eggs and hatching cubs, in the mid-late occurrence, 1.8% can be used Eliminate 10,000 times of the positive spirit, 1.8% of the insects of the insects, 8000 times of the insects, and 3000 times of the azoline of the 200% of the insects in order to eliminate the Chengyu and Ruoqiang of each growth period. The golden-lined moths and caterpillar pests are mostly larvae that feed on the back of the leaves to feed on the leaves or sap. Damage to the leaves, loss of function, leading to premature fall off. In the prevention and treatment, the agents available for use include water kungfu, diflubenzuron 3, Wanling and chrysanthemum pesticides.
2. Fallen leaves caused by artificial or improper technique
Man-made or improper technology causes fallen leaves that are caused by mistakes in the technical and operational process of the fallen fruit. Such as fight drugs, arbitrarily increase the multiple of the drug, the formation of phytotoxicity caused by defoliation; fertilizer process, excessive concentration and the use of quick-acting fertilizers (especially nitrogen fertilizer), the formation of fertilizer-induced defoliation; again as in the orchard operation to spend flowers, pull the sticks When you take a branch, it can cause leaves to fall because of technology. The methods of prevention are: (1) When fighting drugs, it is sensible to take rough plans to avoid troubles, and must be applied according to the pesticide's effective concentration range and minimum effective dose. (2) Fertilizing process, depending on age, tree vigor, fruiting rate, cultivation conditions, fertilizer types, etc., increase or decrease as appropriate, do not over-fertilize and pay attention to fertilization methods. (3) When operating in an orchard, it must be done carefully and standardly, and do not damage the branches and leaves.
3, the adverse environmental caused by falling leaves
(1) Drought and disaster relief. When the temperature reaches 34Â°C or more, the water content in the orchard soil is very low, and it is far from meeting the tree's demand. Under such extreme drought conditions, it often causes hibiscus to accelerate, and physiological adjustment is unbalanced. Sparse phenomenon is serious, eventually causing the leaves to fall early; at the same time, when suddenly falling heavy rain or continuing for several days and even rainy days, it will make orchard water accumulation, soil compaction, poor ventilation, in this environment, most likely to cause the decline in physiological function of the roots, The transmission of tissue is hindered, forcing the tree to perform normal physiological operations, resulting in discoloration, atrophy, and dryness or desiccation of leaves. Orchard water management needs to be done in a timely manner: when irrigation is done in time when the drought occurs, and when the vegetation is arranged quickly, see the Tian Guan Shuqiao arrangement.
(2) Poor weather. In some orchards with poor lighting, the middle and lower branches do not see direct light for a long time and grow parasitically. Most of them are in ineffective consumption. At the early leaf stage, it is light green and thin, and later generation and release of ethylene into egg yellow, early maturing and falling. This type of symptom requires a major change. Take dry, drop heads, pull branches, and through this series of effective measures to make the orchard's light transmittance reach 35% -40%, there will be no yellowing and falling leaves.
(3) Disaster relief. Every summer after the summer, disaster relief happens from time to time. After the fruit trees were attacked by hail, the branches were cracked, the leaves were incomplete and the organs were necrotic, and normal physiological functions could not be performed. The photosynthetic use of the wounded leaves dropped sharply, and soon after the lapse of time, the early fallen leaves will likely become popular. Rescue measures: First, after the disaster, the whole park carefully sprayed a bactericidal agent, strictly controlled the condition, followed by top dressing and foliar spraying, and restored the tree body as soon as possible; secondly, cleaning the filial area of â€‹â€‹fallen leaves and reducing the source of pathogens; Under conditions permitting, orchards install flood control nets to mitigate disasters.
(4) deficiency of the disease. In recent years, in autumn basal fertilizer, the fruit farmer only pays attention to farmyard manure and a large number of elements, ignoring the combination of trace elements, does not achieve the formula fertilization, and often causes defoliation due to lack of a trace element. During the production, young leaves and leaves of iron-deficient fruit trees were chlorotic and yellow, and when they were severe, the leaves were dead and shedding. Mg-deficient fruit trees, the base of the new shoot gradually appeared pale green patches, gradually turning yellowish-brown curling for a few days. In the future, before the fertilization, a soil sampling test shall be conducted. According to the test conditions, the fertilization scheme shall be determined, the single fertilizer be changed, the formula fertilization shall be popularized, and the nutrient balance of various trace elements against nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium shall be noted.
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