Wheat (Fusarium spp.) root rot

Symptoms are also known as wheat root rot leaf spot or black embryo disease, blue death, etc. Distributed in all parts of the country, the northeast, northwest spring wheat area is heavy, Huanghuaihai winter wheat area is also very common. It can cause morbidity in the whole growth period, cause root rot in the seedling stage, and lead to ear rot or black embryo in the adult stage. Become a frequent disease in China's wheat fields, the incidence rate of 205-60%, reduced by 10% -50% or more. Seedlings infected with seedlings can't germinate seriously, and light people can germinate, but young shoots will die in the soil after they are detached from the seed coat; some can germinate and emerge, but grow weakly. After the seedlings became infected, yellow-brown to brownish-black spindles were formed on the coleoptile. The edges were clear and the middle faded slightly. After the expansion, the roots, roots, tillers, and stems of the seedlings were browned, and the diseased tissue gradually became necrotic. Black mildew, the last root system decayed, wheat seedlings laid flat on the ground, the lower leaves turned yellow, and gradually withered and died. A shuttle-shaped, small brown spot develops on the leaves of adult stage disease. It expands into an oblong or irregular light brown spot. Both sides of the disease spot are gray and black molds. The lesions merge into large spots and then die. Severe whole leaves die. . Leaf sheath infections produce cloud-like plaques with indistinct edges and connect with leaves and die. Spike ear disease appeared brown spots and white spikes.

The pathogen Fusarim graminearum Schw. called Fusarium graminearum, F. avenaceum (Fr.) Sacc. said Fusarium cinerea, F. culmorum (WG Smith) Sacc. called Fusarium yellow. It is a disease of multiple compound infestation. Five species of fungi were detected in Heilongjiang, of which Hemeria spp. accounted for 77% and Fusarium accounted for 23%. There are many types of wheat root rot pathogens in Chongqing. Fusarium oxysporum (Fusarium oxysporum) and F. moniliforme (Fusarium moniliforme) were isolated on the local Bama 18 and Mianyang No. 11 diseased tissues and seeds from Chongqing Plant Protection Station and Southwest Agricultural University. ), F. culmorum (Fusarium oxysporum), F. graminearum (F. graminearum), Botrytis cinerea (B. solani), Gerlachia nivalis (S. glauca), Alternaria triticna (Rhizopus nigricans), Mildew) and other 11 species. The strong pathogenicity of F. oxysporum, F. oxysporum, F. moniliforme, G. furfur, Alternaria sp., and Botrytis spp., all can cause root rot of winter wheat.

The main pathogens in the spring wheat region of western Inner Mongolia are Fusarium sp., Fusarium sp., Rizoctonia sp., Rhizoctonia sp., and Bipolaris sp., umbilical rot fungus, Gaeumanomyces sp., and Alternaria sp., causing spring root rot.

Transmission Pathways and Pathogenic Conditions Germs have become the primary infestation source of wheat root rot disease in the following year with mycelium and chlamydospore overwintering in wheat, barley, rye, oats, and various grasses and weeds. . The bacteria survived in the soil for 2 years. Sprouting seeds on production can also cause seedling stage disease. The degree of seedling damage increases with the increase of the amount of seed bacteria, and the incidence of infection is often heavy. Under the condition of seed-borne bacteria, the degree of seed damage is more affected than the rate of seed infection; the temperature after sowing increases from 10°C to At 20 °C, the conidia of the disease germinated rapidly, and the germination rate was high. The germination rate was higher than 22 °C, and germination stopped at 35 °C. The mycelium growth temperature limit is 4 - 37 °C, the hyphal growth pH range is pH 2.7 - 10.3, the sporulation temperature limit is 11 - 35 °C, and the suitable temperature is 20 - 24 °C. The soil temperature is low or the soil moisture is too low or too high to cause disease on the production, the soil is thin or the fertilizer and water are insufficient, the disease resistance is reduced, and the onset of the disease is too early or too deep.

Prevention and control methods (1) Select local cultivars resistant to root rot, and choose Longmai 23 and Longfumai 7 as spring wheat. Winter wheat can use Xinong 881, Qinmai 2, No. 12, Xiong 1376 and other varieties resistant to root rot. Plant seeds without black embryos. (2) Promote the use of compost or fermented organic fertilizer made from fermented bacteria. After the wheat harvest, the pest was ploughed in time, and the diseased organizations were rotted that year to reduce the source of infestation in the next year. (3) Use wheat and leguminous, potato, rape, etc., to change crops, timely sowing, shallow sowing, sowing of soil after soil is too dry, and if the soil is too dry, agricultural measures such as repression should be adopted to reduce the damage. (4) before sowing with Wanjiabao 30g add water 3000g mixed with 20kg seeds, also available 50% acetaminophen WP or 75% Weifu mixture, 58% WP, 70% mancozeb wettable powder, 50% Formamide WP, 20% Triadimefon EC, 80% Penco WP, according to the weight of 0.2% -0.3% seed dressing, control efficiency up to 60%. (5) In the flowering stage of adult plants, spray 25% enemy demulsifier oil 4000 times solution or 50% thiram WP, apply 100g per 6672, spray 75kg water. (6) In the wheat growing period, based on the application of certain organic fertilizers, combined with the spraying of plant power -2003, 10ml spraying 10kg of clear water to promote the development of the root system, the effect of increasing production is remarkable. It is also possible to spray 500-600 times of Wanjiabao from booting to filling the wheat, once every 15 days. (7) promote the use of more rare earth pure nutrients, 50g per 667m2, spraying 20-30L of water, once every 10-15 days, continuous spray 2-3 times.

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